What is a Corn and Callous, and can you stop them

What are calluses and corns?

Calluses and corns are areas of thick skin caused by pressure or friction. It is a normal reaction by the body to produce thick skin when pressure is applied, in order to prevent itself from breaking down. However, this thickness can cause secondary pain by applying pressure on the soft skin around it. Corns and callouses are made of keratin, just like our hair and nails, so they dont actually have feeling. There is no nerve or blood supply to these lesions. The pain is caused by the pressure they apply to the soft skin.

Callouses are usually a patch of thickened skin which will be yellow in colour. They are caused by sheer forces on the skin.

Corns can be soft (between the toes) or hard (top of toes or sole of foot). A corn will usually appear as small seed size patch of hard skin. It occurs when there is torsional forces on the skin, which is why it becomes like cone shaped lesion. It hurts when direct pressure is applied. Read more

Using Toe Pressures to Assess Arterial Foot Health

The effect of diabetes on the feet and lower limbs has been well established both in literature and in clinical studies. Changes in the body can ultimately impact both the larger and smaller arteries in the lower limbs. Calcification of arteries as well as formation of thrombi (Blood clots) may lead to further problems that can end in death. As such, ankle systolic blood pressure measurements have been an important process in evaluating and monitoring lower limb arteries for onset of diseases such as peripheral arterial disease and critical limb ischaemia. Currently the most widely accepted method of assessing this is the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI). Though this method is effective in identifying blockages in blood flow, recent studies have shown it to be unreliable in elderly patients, those with diabetes or chronic renal failure because the peripheral arteries may be incompressible as a result of calcification or blockages in these smaller arteries.

What does the Systolic Toe Pressure Machine Detect?

The newest technologies look to assess the systolic blood pressure in the toes as well as toe pressure indices. The readings are usually taken at the hallux. The results of these studies can be used to identify or screen for a number of medical conditions including:

  • Blockages in large and small blood vessels
  • Arterial insufficiency
  • Cardiac dysfunction
  • Ischaemia/intermittent claudication
  • Necrosis and amputation risks.

Read more

Diabetes and your feet – Part 3

Steps to care for your feet and keep them healthy

Having looked at the potential risks to the feet of a person with diabetes, this final installment will look at appropriate steps to take to keep the feet healthy and safe from potential injury and/or complications.

The Diabetes Association of Queensland has presented a 5 step protocol towards attaining healthy feet. The steps follow the below:

  • Caring for your feet

Wash and dry you feet daily ensuring that you dry well inbetween the toes. The best way to do this would be to use a towel.

Prevent the skin on your feet from getting dry by rubbing moisturiser daily. Moisturisers like sorbolene, vitamin E and aloe vera creams are a good way of maintaining moisture. It is important to remember however not to put moisturiser inbetween the toes as this region should be as dry as possible. Wearing socks also helps keen the skin from becoming dry.

Read more

How does Diabetes Effect your Feet (Part 2)

Diabetes and Associated Foot Complications

Building on our first piece on diabetes and their effect on feet, this week’s blog will focus on bringing light to some possible foot complications that may occur as a result of diabetes and some warning signs to look out for.
Diabetes can cause damage to your nerves and blood supply, putting your feet at greater risk of damage. This risk is only increased if the diabetes has been long standing, is poorly controlled (blood sugar levels are too high) or if the person is inactive or smokes. Changes in the blood that occurs from diabetes makes the feet and lower limbs more prone to infections and poor healing wounds. The fact that diabetes can also cause a loss of sensation in the feet, small and apparently harmless cuts can go unnoticed and with periods of weight bearing can break down and form ulcers that heal very slowly.

There are a number of signs and symptoms that need to be addressed immediately and others that can be taken care of regularly with the help of a podiatrist.

Some complications that require urgent medical attention include: Read more

Podiatry Care for Diabetes Patients (Part 1)

 Part 1 : Diabetes and Peripheral Neuropathy

As a lead into the start of Diabetes Awareness Week (July 12-18), we here at The Cronulla Podiatry Centre will have a three-part blog aimed at bringing awareness of the effect of type 2 diabetes on not only the feet but to the quality of life of those with the condition. Type 2 diabetes, often referred to as a ‘lifestyle disease’, is the most common form occurring when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin required by the body. Diabetes Australia estimates that 1.1 million Australians currently suffer from type 2 diabetes with 280 new cases reported every day.

Part one will look at a phenomenon called diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

What is diabetic peripheral neuropathy?

This is a complication of uncontrolled diabetes which results in nerve damage in the feet. Read more